Serbia (Serbian: Србија), officially the Republic of Serbia is a landlocked country in Southeastern and Central Europe, It shares land borders with Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, and Montenegro to the southwest, and claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo.Serbia without Kosovo has about 6.7 million inhabitants, about 8.4 million if Kosovo is included. For most of the 20th century, it was a part of Yugoslavia.

Beginning in the 1920s, Serbia was an integral part of Yugoslavia (meaning “Land of the South Slavs”), which included the modern countries of Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Macedonia, and Montenegro. Long ruled in turn by the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary, these component nations combined in 1918 to form an independent federation known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. In 1929 that federation was formally constituted as Yugoslavia. After WW2 Yugoslavia was a non -aligned Communist Republic where autonomy was given to its constituent parts. After the collapse of communism and the death of Tito, the Serbian (and later Yugoslav) leader Slobodan Milošević attempted to craft a “Greater Serbia” from the former union, but his policies instead led to the secession of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia and civil war in the early 1990s. The civil war caused the death or displacement of hundreds of thousands of people and prompted international sanctions against the country.

During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, which was peacefully dissolved in 2006, restoring Serbia’s independence as a sovereign state for the first time since 1918. In 2008, representatives of the Assembly of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Serbia is an upper-middle income economy, ranked “very high” in the Human Development Index domain (63rd position). It is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic, member of the UN, CoE, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, and is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014, the country has been negotiating its EU accession, with the aim of joining the European Union by 2025. Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality. The country provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.

Border Facts

Serbia – Bulgaria Border is 341 km long. The border with Serbia runs from Kitka through the mountainous region Kraishte, including the Ruy Mountain,

Serbia – Bulgaria BM #456

crosses the valley of the river Nishava, runs through the main watershed of the western Balkan Mountains and follows the river Timok for 15 km until its confluence with the Danube. There are five border checkpoints at Dolno Uyno, Strezimirovtsi, Kalotina, Vrashka Chuka and Bregovo.

Serbia- North Macedonia border is 282 km long in the south of the country. The border was made after World War II, between SR Macedonia and SR Serbia. This border was further sub divided when Kosovo gained independence in 2008.

Serbia – Kosovo border is 352 km long. Serbia treats this border as an “administrative line”; it is under shared control of Kosovo border police and Serbian police forces, and there are 11 crossing points. Whilst it is possible to enter Kosovo from Serbia it is not possible to enter Serbia from Kosovo unless one has entered Serbia first. The tripoint of Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro KVMERS is at the peak of Beleg mountain (2142m).

Serbia – Montenegro border is 249 km long. The tripoint at BAMERS is at Zelena Glava peak (2115m)

Serbia – Bosnia and Herzegovina Border is 370 km long

Serbia – Croatia border is 314km long. Each country has significant minorities within the other. Much of the border is made up of the Danube. The Croatia–Serbia border dispute entails competing claims regarding the border at several points along the Danube River valley shared by the two countries. The disputed areas are located along a 140-kilometre portion of the course, out of 188-kilometre of the river course in the area. In that area, the border is defined differently by the neighbouring countries—either as following the course of the Danube, as claimed by Serbia, or following a line tracing the borders of cadastral municipalities having seat in either of the two countries, as claimed by Croatia. These disputes are ongoing.

By Tomobe03 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

The Croatia–Serbia border dispute in the Bačka and Baranja area. The Croatian claim corresponds to the red line, while the Serbian claim corresponds to the course of the Danube.

Yellow areas are under Serbian control but claimed by Croatia. Green areas Terra nullius are under de facto Croatian control, although not claimed by either Croatia or Serbia

Serbia – Hungary border is is approximately 164 km long and is situated in the northern section of the country. Hungary built a border barrier on its border with Serbia. The fence was constructed during the European migrant crisis, with the aim to ensure border security by preventing illegal immigrants from entering, and enabling the option to enter through official checkpoints and claim asylum in Hungary in accordance with international and European law. The number of illegal entries to Hungary declined greatly after the barrier was finished as it effectively abolished the access to asylum in Hungary.

Serbia – Romania border is 546.4 kilometres long, of which 256.8 kilometres are terrestrial and 289.6 kilometres are fluvial. The border was established after the formation of the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia (later renamed to Romania) in 1859 and the partition of Banat after the Treaty of Trianon. Both countries have several border crossing points. Among them are those of Vrbica–Vălcani, Golubac–Moldova Nouă, Kladovo–Drobeta-Turnu Severin and several others. Many of these points were temporarily closed in 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The point where the borders of Hungary, Romania and Serbia coincide is known as the “Triplex Confinium” (HUROSR). Cultural events occur each year.

Serbian Registration Plates

Serbian Passport Stamps

Serbian Tripoints

1BAHRRSBosnia and Herzegonia – Croatia –
Bosnia and Herzegonia –
Montenegro –
3BGMKRSBulgaria – Macedonia –
4BGRORSBulgaria – Romania –
WetPalmberg (2005)
5HRHURSCroatia – Hungary –
DryPalmberg (2005)
6HURORSHungary – Romania –
DryHering (2002)
Palmberg (2002) (2005)
7KVMERSKosovo – Montenegro –
8KVMKRSKosovo – Macedonia –

Tripoint Gallery


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