A further area of interest for border enthusiasts are Enclaves and Exclaves.
|Enclave||is a territory that is completely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves are therefore inner.||The Vatican and San Marino are enclaved by the City of Rome and Italy respectively. Llivia is a Spanish town enclaved by France.|
|Exclave||is a part of a state that is geographically separated from the main part by the territory of one or more states. Exclaves are therefore outer.||The Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan.|
|Semi-enclaves and |
|are areas that, except for possessing a sea border (with access to international waters), would otherwise be enclaves or exclaves||Brunei, Gambia and Monaco are examples semi enclaves – states with sea access which are surrounded by another country. Kaliningrad is an example of a semi exclave (still an integral part of Russia)|
|Pene-exclave||is a part of the territory of one country that can be conveniently approached only through the territory of another country. Many pene-exclaves partially border their own territorial waters (i.e., they are not surrounded by other nations’ territorial waters).||Examples of pene enclaves include Port Roberts in Washington State that can only be accessed by car via Canada. Kleinwalsertal Valley is connected only to Germany and not to Austria. A further example is Dubki area is bounded by Estonia and Lake Peipsi-Pihkva.|
|Counter enclave|| is an enclave within an enclave.||The village of Nawha is part of the United Arab Emirates, yet is wholly surrounded by a part of Oman called Madha, which in turn wholly surrounded by territory belonging to the United Arab Emirates. |
In the above diagram different territories are represented by different colours and letters; separated parts of the same territory are represented by the same colour and letter, with a different number added to each smaller part of that territory (the main part is identified by the letter only).
|Country A |
|Possesses 3 exclaves (A1, A2 and A3): it is impossible to go from the main part of A to any of these parts going only through territory of A. |
A1 and A2 are not enclaves: neither of them is surrounded by a single “foreign” territory.
A3 is an enclave: it is totally surrounded by B.
Country A contains 1 enclave (E): a “foreign” territory totally surrounded by its territory.
Country A possesses 2 counter-enclaves, or (A4 and A5): territories belonging to it which are located within the enclave E.
Country A contains 1 counter-counter-enclave (E1).
|Country B (YELLOW)||Country B contains 2 enclaves (A3 and D).|
|Country C is continuous territory. It contains no enclaves and does not have territory exclaved elsewhere.|
|Country D |
|Country D is an enclaved territory: it is territorially continuous, but its territory is totally surrounded by a single “foreign” territory (B).|
|Country E |
|Country E is an enclaved territory: it is inside A;|
Country E contains 2 enclaves (A4 and A5), which are counter-enclaves of A;
Country E possesses 1 counter-enclave (E1), which is a counter-counter-enclave as viewed by A and contained within A5.
|Source: Gazillion (Wikipedia)|
Enclave and Exclave gallery
Llivia border markers